Monday, September 2, 2013

What's in the RO Waste Water at #Fukushima I Nuke Plant?

Lots of all-beta (that includes strontium), tritium, but not so much cesium or gamma emitters.

But first, let's do the quick recap of the water treatment system at Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant that has been operational since mid 2011:

  1. Water (filtered water + treated water) is injected into the reactors to cool the corium.

  2. Water gets highly contaminated with radioactive materials from the corium, accumulates in the basements of the reactor buildings and turbine buildings which are connected.

  3. Highly contaminated water get somewhat diluted by the groundwater seeping in (400 tonnes a day).

  4. The water is then transported from the turbine building basements to either Central Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility or High Temperature Incinerator Building, which have been converted to storage of contaminated water.

  5. From these buildings, the water is transported to Cesium Absorption Apparatus (which is currently Toshiba's SARRY only; Kurion's system has been off-line for a long time now, and AREVA's co-precipitation decontamination system is not used anymore). Most of radioactive cesium is removed by this process, from tens of thousands of becquerels per cubic centimeter to ND or close to ND. This water still contains high tritium and high all-beta. It also contains chloride, from the seawater injection in the early days of the accident in 2011.

  6. The water treated at SARRY then undergoes desalination process, using Reverse Osmosis Apparatus to remove chloride. (Evaporative Concentration System, another desalination process, is not currently used.)

  7. After being treated by Reverse Osmosis Apparatus, the water, though still high in tritium and containing all-beta (which cannot be removed at this point, as ALPS has been halted and there is no effective way to remove tritium), is mixed with filtered river water, and gets injected into the reactor.

  8. The waste water after reverse osmosis process, high in chloride and high in all-beta and tritium, is stored in the tanks (assembled metal tanks or welded tanks), and this is the water that is found leaking from the tank(s) this time.

Here's the latest nuclide analysis of water at different stages of water treatment, published on August 8, 2013. No.8 water (in red rectangle) is the RO waste water:

Cs-134: 1.1E+00, or 1.1 Bq/cm3
Cs-137: 2.7E+00, or 2.7 Bq/cm3
Sb-125: 3.0E+01, or 30 Bq/cm3

Tritium: 7.7E+02, or 770 Bq/cm3
All-beta: 7.5E+04, or 75,000 Bq/cm3


Anonymous said...

Please check this out... It seems it is OUT OF CONTROL!

Anonymous said...

Anon at 2:17PM, are you a paid shill from RT or Busby? Clearly you are not reading this blog.

Anonymous said...

Your taxes are paying for this pretty, but utterly useless, spreadsheet. Where are the sample results for the long lived emitters?. No Pu, no U

Where is the itemised breakdown of all beta elements that add up to 75,000 Bq/cm3 ?

This is just more tepco and govt smoke and mirrors as they ride roughshod over our ecology with cavalier disregard.

Anonymous said...

Anon at 2:54PM, uranium and plutonium (alpha nuclides) as they exist inside the reactor are not water-soluble.

Anonymous said...

On that basis;

Gamma = 33.8 Bq/cm3
Beta = 75770 Bq/cm3

So the gamma emitter flux is just 0.045% of radiation within the water treated by the plant on Aug 8th 2013.

Anonymous said...

1 part in 450 is gamma rays.

Anonymous said...

Chris Busby: I think this is an indication that it has actually deteriorated significantly, very suddenly in the last week. What they are not saying and what is the missing piece of evidence here is that radiation suddenly cannot increase unless something happens and that something cannot be leakage from a tank, because gamma radiation goes straight through a tank. The tank has got very thin metal walls. These walls will only attenuate gamma radiation by 5 per cent, even when it is 1 cm thick.

Yeah, that Dr. Busby doesn't know anything huh? Just like Arnie Gundersen. Both of them should be ignored and considered uneducated, /SARC off/

Anonymous said...

Anon at 11:15PM, you really didn't need to remove your sarcasm.Busby seems to believe 1800 mSv is gamma radiation. He sure doesn't know anything on this leak.

Anonymous said...

The spread sheet is from TEPCO..there is no other information of the MAJOR problems all are facing. Japan is carefully controlling the information. So all sites use what they can find, and its better than nothing. If not testing for Stronium or PU or U..well its not showing on the charts SFK or others can locate--and believe me I think they are looking. Lets keep focused on the problem and not make critical comments of this author.

And have you donated to help the researching effort? No?

Anonymous said...

Hi, and thanks for the informations on your blog!

I've been following the Fukushima disaster since hour 1 (especially in Physics Forum) and i have a question about your article above: you seem to say that all the water stored in the tanks went through SARRY process (for Cesium treatment). But is it true? I had the impression that (maybe based on wrong elements?) that the installation was not capable of treating all the flow of contaminated water and that some of this pumped water was stored like that in tanks? Again i may be wrong but can you confirm that 100% of the water stored in tanks went at least through SARRY process?


Anonymous said...

I can't believe that nobody has asked what tepco are doing with all the massively hot waste filtration material from Sarry, (and the other systems when they were functional)

Where is Tepco dumping the 'hot stuff'? the sea? Burning it? Given their propensity for criminal idiocy, neither seems far fetched.

Anonymous said...

Plutonium exposed to air rapidly oxidises to form plutonium hydride which then forms plutonium hydroxide when exposed to water. Plutonium hydroxide most certainly is soluble in water.

arevamirpal::laprimavera said...

Anon at 4:49AM, yes, the water has gone through SARRY, which has two lines.

The original contaminated water (mixed with groundwater) sits either in the basements of reactor buildings and turbine buildings or in the two buildings mentioned in No.4 point in the post. The buildings have been used as water storage.

Anon 6:46AM, SARRY uses vessels like Kurion's cesium absorption system. Radioactive materials are absorbed in the vessels filled with absorbing materials like zeolite and other formulations as the contaminated water is fed through the system. They replace the vessels after certain number of hours, and store the used vessels in the storage building specifically built for such vessels.

Highly radioactive sludge that came out of AREVA's system has been stored in similar vessels.

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